Open access increases visibility and accessibility
Open access to publications ensures that scientific publications: journal articles, monographs, proceedings and conference papers, are accessible to everyone free of charge. This makes scientific publications available to everyone and not just to those who have paid for subscriptions.
There are two ways achieving open access:
1 By self-archiving the publication in an open access repository, referred as the green open access.This open elctronic repository can be an institutional repository for the university, shared repository of a discipline, or a subject-based or centralized repository (e.g. arXiv) or other form of open access repository (e.g. Zenodo).
2 By publishing an open access article in a journal. This is usually referred as the gold open access. The journal may be either a fully open access journal either requiring author payments (APC, article processing charges) or a journal that does not require such payments.Gold open access may also refer to a subscription journal, which allows individual articles to made open access on payment of an APC fee.These kind of journals are usually referred to as hybrid journal.
Many publishers allow the final peer-reviewed manuscript (that is without the publishers layout, page numebring or logo, to be archived by the author in an online institutional repository such as a university database, alongside or after its publication. Some publishers request that open access be granted only after an embargo period has elapsed.
Open access repositories make publications easier to manage and find: Users do not have to seek information separately in several databases thanks to web search engines such as Google Scholar that indexes the full text or metadata of scientific literature from different publishing formats and disciplines. See a video on the effect of open access on the visibility and accessibility of works.
Open access saves researchers the trouble of organising their own archives, as they can easily and reliably deposit their article in a repository with guaranteed management and backup. For long-term preservation, institutional repositories such as university databases are a safer option than commercial ones, as the university cannot guarantee the long-term preservation of articles in commercial services (e.g. Mendeley, ResearchGate), and the university is responsible for the preservation of the material to the agency funding the study and to the science community.